DDI Publications

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Below are presentations, posters, publications, and working papers about the Data Documentation Initiative. If you know about publications or presentations not listed here, please see our Adding Publications page.


1) Introduction to the DDI (Hayley Mills, Hilde Orten, Anja Perry)

This presentation will provide an introduction to the metadata standard DDI with focus on the work products of the DDI Alliance. It will include an overview of the background of DDI, who is using the standard, and for what purpose.


2) Study and variable description with DDI (Hayley Mills)

The DDI standard allows the documentation of metadata from the high level of a study or project, to the lower level of an individual variable. This presentation will; i) describe how DDI represents these, ii) give the advantages of documenting metadata in this way, including for discovery and harmonisation; and iii) provide examples of where this has been achieved.


3) Questions and Instruments (Hilde Orten)

The DDI contains detailed structures for describing individual survey questions as well as questionnaires. This presentation will; i) describe structures for documenting questions and instruments in DDI, ii) explore advantages for comparative surveys; and iii) provide examples of practical implementations based on DDI.

Green A, Humphrey C.  2013.  Building the DDI. IASSIST Quaterly. 37:36–44.

Hansen SEllen, Iverson J, Jensen U, Orten H, Vompras J.  2011.  Enabling Longitudinal Data Comparison Using DDI. DDI Working Paper Series (Longitudinal Best Practise).

This paper looks at the growing variety of data sources in research – e.g., biomarkers – that are not traditional question-based surveys, and how these can be usefully documented.


This paper proposes best practice for the use of DDI to ensure that there are appropriate metadata to compare data produced across repeated data collection over time.


This paper describes the Questionnaire Development Documentation project, a system created by GESIS Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences to permit permanent electronic documentation of questionnaire development and the final state of the instrument.

Ionescu S, Hoyle L, Kleemola M, Mechtel M, Olsson O, Thomas WThomas.  2010.  Using DDI 3 for Comparison. DDI Working Paper Series (Use Cases).

This paper explores how archives can use DDI 3 to support and document data comparison and harmonization.


This paper focuses on the creation of an open source DDI 3 editor built using a layered architecture at the Danish Data Archive (DDA).