DDI Publications

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Below are presentations, posters, publications, and working papers about the Data Documentation Initiative. If you know about publications or presentations not listed here, please see our Adding Publications page.


This paper is an exploration and evaluation of DDI 3 to determine its suitability for marking up and managing cross-national comparative surveys like the International Social Survey Programme data.


This paper describes how Questasy, a Web application developed to manage the dissemination of data and metadata for panel surveys, was designed and implemented.


The authors believe that it is currently premature to recommend a ‘best practice’ for interacting effectively with registries. Instead, this document defines registries and provides a justification for using them. It begins by giving relevant definitions and discussing the general business case and then goes on to describe from a high-level perspective the use of registries that allow researchers to access material. It concludes by describing examples of researcher use cases.  

Researchers need to discover information that they can use to answer their research questions. To meet this requirement, data disseminators need to improve the discovery/visibility of their data and metadata. The exposure of DDI metadata can be enhanced through DDI registries that allow, for example, federated searching, as well as the reuse of information from one project to another to enhance comparison and minimize duplication of effort. 

Askitas N, Eisenhauer J, Gregory A, Grim R, Heus P, Hoogerwerf M, Zenk-Möltgen W.  2009.  DDI 3.0 URNs and Entity Resolution. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practices).

This document is a recommendation about appropriate architecture for the effective resolution of DDI URNs.

Askitas N, Gregory A, Hoogerwerf M.  2009.  Management of DDI 3.0 Unique Identifiers. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practices).

This best practice specifies the technical requirements and procedures for ensuring well-managed identifiers for both internal use and external references. Management of identifiers is divided into two situations: during creation of new DDI 3.0 objects and during migration of older DDI versions into DDI 3.0 versions. These best practices will be described from both procedural and technical perspectives.  

While DDI 3.0 provides enhanced functionality in managing identifiers, one must proceed carefully to ensure that identifiers are constructed properly and managed consistently. This best practice lays out some steps to follow when building new identifiers and migrating DDI documents across versions. 

All DDI 3.0 objects need to be uniquely identified to enable them to be referred to by other DDI 3.0 instances. Since in DDI 3.0 the scope of all objects has increased from just a DDI instance to the whole world, additional measures are needed to guarantee uniqueness within this broader scope. 

Granda P, Kramer S, Linnerud J, Marker HJorgen, Miller K, Vardigan M.  2009.  Controlled Vocabularies. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practises).

The benefits of using controlled vocabularies, which offer consistency, precision, and interoperability, within DDI metadata creation are the primary underlying principles behind this best practice.

Ionescu S.  2009.  Creating a DDI Profile. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practises).

This document outlines recommended best practices for creating a local DDI 3.0 Profile, which is a subset of DDI 3.0 fields to be used by an organization or shared by a community of users.

Linnerud J, Marker HJorgen, Moschner M, Thomas W.  2009.  DDI 3.0 Schemes. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practises).

This best practice covers DDI publishing structures that promote reuse of common material by removing certain metadata content from the context of a specific study and publishing it for wider use.

Wackerow J.  2008.  The Data Documentation Initiative (DDI). 8th International conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. :206.


The Data Documentation Initiative is an international effort to establish an XML standard for technical documentation describing social science data. Initial funding for the effort was provided by the National Science Foundation.