DDI Publications

We are in the process of importing all past publications. The content may be incomplete in the interim.

Below are presentations, posters, publications, and working papers about the Data Documentation Initiative. If you know about publications or presentations not listed here, please see our Adding Publications page.


This paper is an exploration and evaluation of DDI 3 to determine its suitability for marking up and managing cross-national comparative surveys like the International Social Survey Programme data.


This paper describes how Questasy, a Web application developed to manage the dissemination of data and metadata for panel surveys, was designed and implemented.

Askitas N, Eisenhauer J, Gregory A, Grim R, Heus P, Hoogerwerf M, Zenk-Möltgen W.  2009.  DDI 3.0 URNs and Entity Resolution. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practices).

This document is a recommendation about appropriate architecture for the effective resolution of DDI URNs.


The authors believe that it is currently premature to recommend a ‘best practice’ for interacting effectively with registries. Instead, this document defines registries and provides a justification for using them. It begins by giving...

Askitas N, Gregory A, Hoogerwerf M.  2009.  Management of DDI 3.0 Unique Identifiers. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practices).

This best practice specifies the technical requirements and procedures for ensuring well-managed identifiers for both internal use and external references. Management of identifiers is divided into two situations: during creation of new DDI 3.0...

Granda P, Kramer S, Linnerud J, Marker HJorgen, Miller K, Vardigan M.  2009.  Controlled Vocabularies. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practises).

The benefits of using controlled vocabularies, which offer consistency, precision, and interoperability, within DDI metadata creation are the primary underlying principles behind this best practice.

Ionescu S.  2009.  Creating a DDI Profile. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practises).

This document outlines recommended best practices for creating a local DDI 3.0 Profile, which is a subset of DDI 3.0 fields to be used by an organization or shared by a community of users.

Linnerud J, Marker HJorgen, Moschner M, Thomas W.  2009.  DDI 3.0 Schemes. DDI Working Paper Series (Best Practises).

This best practice covers DDI publishing structures that promote reuse of common material by removing certain metadata content from the context of a specific study and publishing it for wider use.

Wackerow J.  2008.  The Data Documentation Initiative (DDI). 8th International conference on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications. :206.


The Data Documentation Initiative is an international effort to establish an XML standard for technical documentation describing social science data. Initial funding for the effort was provided by the National Science Foundation.